fabulist n : a person who tells or invents fables
A fable is a brief, succinct story, in prose or verse, that features animals, plants, inanimate objects, or forces of nature which are anthropomorphized (given human qualities), and that illustrates a moral lesson (a "moral"), which may at the end be expressed explicitly in a pithy maxim.
A fable differs from a parable in that the latter excludes animals, plants, inanimate objects, and forces of nature as actors that assume speech and other powers of humankind.
The descriptive definition of "fable" given above has not always been closely adhered to. In the King James Version of the New Testament, "μύθος" ("mythos") was rendered by the translators as "fable" in First and Second Timothy, in Titus and in First Peter.
The word "fable" comes from the Latin "fabula" (a "story"), itself derived from "fari" ("to speak").
In a pejorative sense, a "fable" may be a deliberately invented or falsified account of an event or circumstance. Similarly, a non-authorial person who, wittingly or not, tells "tall tales," may be termed a "confabulator." In its original sense, however, "fable" denotes a brief, succinct story that is meant to impart a moral lesson.
An author of fables is termed a "fabulist," and the word "fabulous," strictly speaking, "pertains to a fable or fables." In recent decades, however, "fabulous" has come frequently to be used in the quite different meaning of "excellent" or "outstanding".
CharacteristicsFables can be described as a didactic mode of literature. That is, whether a fable has been handed down from generation to generation as oral literature, or constructed by a literary tale-teller, its purpose is to impart a lesson or value, or to give sage advice. Fables also provide opportunities to laugh at human folly, when they supply examples of behaviors to be avoided rather than emulated.
Fables frequently have as their central characters animals that are given anthropomorphic characteristics such as the ability to reason and speak. In antiquity, Aesop presented a wide range of animals as protagonists, including The Tortoise and the Hare which famously engage in a race against each other; and, in another classic fable, a fox which rejects grapes that are out of reach, as probably being sour ("sour grapes"). Medieval French fabliaux might feature Reynard the Fox, a trickster figure, and offer a subtext mildly subversive of the feudal social order. Similarly, the 18th-century Polish fabulist Ignacy Krasicki employs animals as the title actors in his striking verse fable, "The Lamb and the Wolves." Krasicki uses plants the same way in "The Violet and the Grass."
Personification may also be extended to things inanimate, as in Krasicki's "Bread and Sword." His "The Stream and the River," again, offers an example of personified forces of nature.
Divinities may also appear in fables as active agents. Aesop's Fables feature most of the Greek pantheon, including Zeus and Hermes.
HistoryThe fable is one of the most enduring forms of folk literature, spread abroad, modern researchers agree, less by literary anthologies than by oral transmission. Fables can be found in the literature of almost every country. The varying corpus denoted Aesopica or Aesop's Fables includes most of the best-known western fables, which are attributed to the legendary Aesop, supposed to have been a Greek slave around 550 B.C..
When Babrius set down fables from the Aesopica in verse for a Hellenistic Prince "Alexander," he expressly stated at the head of Book II that this type of "myth" that Aesop had introduced to the "sons of the Hellenes" had been an invention of "Syrians" from the time of "Ninos" (personifying Nineveh to Greeks) and Belos ("ruler").
Several parallel animal fables in Sumerian and Akkadian are among those that E. Ebeling introduced to modern Western readers; there are comparable fables from Egypt's Middle Kingdom, and Hebrew fables such as the "king of trees" in Book of Judges 9 and "the thistle and the cedar tree" in II Kings 14:9. Many other familiar ones include “The Crow and the Pitcher,” “The Hare and the Tortoise,” and “The Lion and the Mouse.”
Hundreds of fables were composed in ancient India during the first millennium BC, often as stories within frame stories. These included Vishnu Sarma's Panchatantra, the Hitopadesha, Vikram and The Vampire, and Syntipas' Seven Wise Masters, which were collections of fables that were later influential throughout the Old World. Earlier Indian epics such as Vyasa's Mahabharata and Valmiki's Ramayana also contained fables within the main story, often as side stories or back-story. Some scholars have argued that these fables were influenced by similar Greek and Near Eastern ones.
Epicharmus of Kos and Phormis are reported as having been among the first to invent comic fables.
Fables had a further long tradition through the Middle Ages, and became part of European literature. During the 17th century, the French fabulist Jean de La Fontaine (1621-1695) saw the soul of the fable in the moral — a rule of behavior. Starting with the Aesopian pattern, La Fontaine set out to satirize the court, the church, the rising bourgeoisie, indeed the entire human scene of his time. La Fontaine's model was subsequently emulated by Poland's Ignacy Krasicki (1735-1801) and Russia's Ivan Krylov (1769-1844).
In modern times, the fable has been trivialized in children's books. Yet it has also been fully adapted to modern adult literature. For instance, James Thurber used the ancient style in his books, Fables for Our Time and The Beast in Me and Other Animals. George Orwell's Animal Farm satirizes Stalinist Communism in particular, and totalitarianism in general, in the guise of animal fable. Felix Salten's Bambi is a Bildungsroman — a story of a protagonist's coming-of-age — cast in the form of a fable.
- Aesop (mid-6th century BCE), author of Aesop's Fables.
- Vishnu Sarma (ca. 200 BCE), author of the anthropomorphic political treatise and fable collection, the Panchatantra.
- Bidpai (ca. 200 BCE), author of Sanskrit (Hindu) and Pali (Buddhist) animal fables in verse and prose.
- Syntipas (ca. 100 BCE), Indian philosopher, reputed author of a collection of tales known in Europe as The Story of the Seven Wise Masters.
- Gaius Julius Hyginus (Hyginus, Latin author, native of Spain or Alexandria, ca. 64 BCE - 17 C.E.), author of Fabulae.
- Phaedrus (15 BCE – 50 CE), Roman fabulist, by birth a Macedonian.
- Walter of England c.1175
- Marie de France (12th century).
- Berechiah ha-Nakdan (Berechiah the Punctuator, or Grammarian, 13th century), author of Jewish fables adapted from Aesop's Fables.
- Robert Henryson (Scottish, 15th century), author of The Morall Fabillis of Esope the Phrygian.
- Leonardo da Vinci (Italian, 1452 – 1519).
- Biernat of Lublin (Polish, 1465? – after 1529).
- Jean de La Fontaine (French, 1621 – 95).
- John Gay (English) (1685 – 1732)
- Ignacy Krasicki (Polish, 1735 – 1801).
- Dositej Obradović (Serbian, 1742? – 1811).
- Félix María de Samaniego (Spanish, 1745 – 1801), best known for "The Ant and the Cicade."
- Tomás de Iriarte (Spanish, 1750 – 91).
- Ivan Krylov (Russian, 1769 – 1844).
- Leo Tolstoy (1828 – 1910).
- Nico Maniquis (1834 – 1912).
- Ambrose Bierce (1842 – ?1914).
- Sholem Aleichem (1859 – 1916).
- George Ade (1866 – 1944), Fables in Slang, etc.
- Don Marquis (1878 – 1937), author of the fables of archy and mehitabel.
- Franz Kafka (1883 – 1924).
- Damon Runyon (1884 – 1946).
- James Thurber (1894 – 1961), Fables For Our Time.
- George Orwell (1903 – 50).
- Dr. Seuss (1904 – 91)
- Isaac Bashevis Singer (1904 – 91).
- José Saramago (born 1922).
- Italo Calvino (1923 – 85), "If on a winter's night a traveler," etc.
- Arnold Lobel (1933 – 87), author of Fables, winner 1981 Caldecott Medal.
- Ramsay Wood (born 1943), author of Kalila and Dimna: Fables of Friendship and Betrayal.
- Bill Willingham (born 1956), author of Fables graphic novels.
- Acrid Hermit (born 1962), author of http://www.createspace.com/3340070" Misty Forest Fables. isbn 9781605859309
- The Jataka Tales
- Aesop's Fables by Aesop
- Panchatantra by Vishnu Sarma (also known as Kalila and Dimna, Kalilag and Damnag, The Lights of Canopus, Fables of Bidpai, and The Morall Philosophie of Doni)
- Baital Pachisi (Vikram and The Vampire)
- Seven Wise Masters by Syntipas
- Fables and Parables by Ignacy Krasicki
- The Emperor's New Clothes
- Stone Soup
- The Little Engine that Could
- Jonathan Livingston Seagull
- Watership Down
- The Lion King
- The Fox and the Cock by James Thurber
- Animal Farm by George Orwell
- Theatre of the Greeks
- King James Bible; New Testament (authorised).
- Animal Symbolism List of frequently described animals and their characteristics
- The Dragon-Tyrant
- Fables - Collection and guide to fables for children
- Imaginexus A collection of interconnected stories that anyone can edit
- Beast Fable Society An academic society focused on fables and related genres
fabulist in Aymara: Yatichawini jawari
fabulist in Bosnian: Basna
fabulist in Breton: Fablenn
fabulist in Bulgarian: Басня
fabulist in Catalan: Faula
fabulist in Chuvash: Юптару
fabulist in Czech: Bajka
fabulist in Danish: Fabel
fabulist in German: Fabel
fabulist in Estonian: Valm
fabulist in Modern Greek (1453-): Παραμύθι
fabulist in Spanish: Fábula
fabulist in Esperanto: Fablo
fabulist in Persian: حکایت
fabulist in French: Fable
fabulist in Korean: 우화
fabulist in Interlingua (International Auxiliary Language Association): Fabula
fabulist in Italian: Favola
fabulist in Hebrew: משל
fabulist in Lithuanian: Pasakėčia
fabulist in Hungarian: Fabula
fabulist in Dutch: Fabel
fabulist in Japanese: 寓話
fabulist in Norwegian: Fabel
fabulist in Norwegian Nynorsk: Fabel
fabulist in Narom: Fabl'ye
fabulist in Low German: Fabel
fabulist in Polish: Bajka
fabulist in Portuguese: Fábula
fabulist in Romanian: Fabulă
fabulist in Russian: Басня
fabulist in Sicilian: Fàula
fabulist in Simple English: Fable
fabulist in Slovak: Bájka
fabulist in Serbian: Басна
fabulist in Serbo-Croatian: Basna
fabulist in Finnish: Faabeli
fabulist in Swedish: Fabel
fabulist in Thai: นิทาน
fabulist in Vietnamese: Ngụ ngôn
fabulist in Turkish: Öykünce
fabulist in Ukrainian: Байка
fabulist in Walloon: Fåve di djåzantès biesses
fabulist in Yiddish: משל
fabulist in Chinese: 寓言